Curriculum Vitae
Bob Levinson
Bob Levinson
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Bob Levinson


Robert Jeffrey Levinson


Ph.D., Economics
Graduate School of Arts and Science, New York University

B.A. with Honors in Economics, magna cum laude
Washington Square and University College of Arts and Science, New York University


Dr. Robert J. Levinson is an economist and vice president in the Antitrust & Competition Economics Practice of Charles River Associates. Dr. Levinson specializes in industrial organization and antitrust analysis. He has particular interests in the pricing, R&D and intellectual property policies of high-technology firms and industries and in the economic analysis of law. In private practice and as an economist with the US Federal Trade Commission, Dr. Levinson has been critically involved in numerous antitrust matters in a wide variety of industries.


Professional experience


Charles River Associates, Washington, DC


Vice President, 2004 - present
Principal, 1999 - 2004

Dr. Levinson provides economic analysis and advice to clients in connection with mergers, non-merger antitrust matters, and related intellectual property issues. He has assisted clients in the United States, Canada, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

A key focus of Dr. Levinson’s work is antitrust in the high-technology sector. His experience includes work on competition and competition-related intellectual property issues pertaining, among other things, to microprocessors and other integrated circuits; microcomputers; minicomputers; mainframes; hard drives; computer storage arrays; optical storage media; data backup and archiving devices; graphics processors and subsystems; general-purpose desktop and server operating systems; embedded operating systems; business productivity applications; database systems, web browsers; software development tools; computer-aided design, animation and modeling software; electronic circuit design and analysis software; speech recognition and text-to-speech software; public relations software and systems; electronic health records and medical practice management software, and related services; computer disaster recovery services; additive manufacturing devices; industrial lasers; medical devices; online advertising and online media content; social networking; broadband landline and mobile online communications services; semiconductor fabrication equipment and related products; telecommunications and networking equipment, and related standards, software, and components; spacecraft; satellite components; launch vehicles; defense systems; and defense-related engineering services.

His other matters involved, among other things, ammunition; automotive batteries and technologies; basic metals; business process outsourcing; chemicals; construction materials, including drywall, pipe, and fittings; department stores and other forms of “bricks and mortar” retailing; electricity; exercise equipment; financial services technologies; food products; hospital and outpatient services; industry trade and standard-setting associations; large commercial aircraft (airliners and freighters), and components for large commercial aircraft; natural gas; newspapers; pharmaceuticals; retail advertising; and sporting goods. In addition to his extensive experience in the economic analysis of liability issues in antitrust and merger cases, Dr. Levinson has also overseen and participated in analyses of economic damages and valuation (the latter in the context of a non-antitrust-related business consulting engagement for a major supplier of networking equipment).

During his tenure at CRA, Dr. Levinson has appeared before representatives of the US Federal Trade Commission, the US Department of Justice, the European Commission, the Irish Competition Authority, and the German Federal Cartel Office (Bundeskartellamt). Dr. Levinson also prepared and contributed significantly to numerous written submissions to these competition agencies.

Dr. Levinson has, individually or jointly with others, submitted expert reports before US federal courts, the European Commission, the World Trade Organization, the South African competition authorities, and a Tribunal of the International Chamber of Commerce. He also prepared an expert report for submission in a major US multi-district class action matter that was resolved favorably before his report was due to be filed. Dr. Levinson has testified at deposition in the US, and has testified before representatives of the European Commission and the EU Member States in Brussels.

Dr. Levinson has also supported the work of noted academic economists before the antitrust agencies and the courts. In this role, he oversaw and contributed to research and the development of economic analyses and other work products.


PHB Hagler Bailly, Inc., Washington, DC


Principal, 1997 - 1999

Dr. Levinson provided economic analysis and advice to clients involved in competition or intellectual property-related matters in the markets for sporting goods, forest products, computer software, laser surgery equipment, retail and wholesale distribution, dental materials, and pharmaceuticals. He was designated as an expert witness in a private antitrust action.


United States Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC


Economist, Bureau of Economics, Division of Antitrust, 1996 - 1997

Dr. Levinson served as lead economist in antitrust investigations of mergers involving defense systems, chemicals, natural gas, wholesale distribution, and retailing. He was the lead government staff economist in the Commission’s investigation and litigation concerning the then-proposed Staples/Office Depot merger, providing recommendations to the Commission and litigation support to counsel and preparing (in conjunction with others) the Commission’s economic expert witness. Dr. Levinson also served as lead economist in several non-merger matters.


LECG, Inc. (Law & Economics Consulting Group, Inc.), Washington, DC


Senior Economist, 1995 - 1996

Dr. Levinson provided economic analysis and research in the context of antitrust matters in markets for pharmaceuticals and computer software. He also conducted research into the relationship between innovation and market structure.


United States Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC


Economist, Bureau of Economics, Division of Antitrust, 1994 - 1995

Dr. Levinson served as lead economist in a variety of merger investigations, most notably major transactions in the natural gas and computer software industries. He also participated in the preparation of an FTC intervention before the US Patent and Trademark Office regarding intellectual property rights in the software industry.


United States Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC


Economic Advisor to Commissioner Deborah K. Owen, 1993 - 1994

Dr. Levinson assessed the analyses and recommendations of FTC staff attorneys and economists regarding enforcement actions, consent agreements, rulemaking procedures, and other activities that the Federal Trade Commission considered or undertook pursuant to its antitrust enforcement and consumer protection missions, and provided the Commissioner with written and oral advice on the basis of these assessments.


United States Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC


Economist, Bureau of Economics, Division of Antitrust,1990 - 1993

Dr. Levinson performed economic analyses of firm behavior and and industry conditions in the context of a wide variety of antitrust investigations. Dr. Levinson served as the lead economist in the Commission’s investigation of Microsoft’s licensing methods and other computer industry matters, and was lead economist for the FTC in investigations of alleged price fixing and non-price horizontal restraints on the part of trade associations. He also worked on mergers in the fields of industrial machinery and retailing.


New York University, New York, NY


Adjunct Instructor of Economics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Economics, 1989 - 1990

Taught and developed courses in urban economics and intermediate-level microeconomic theory.


New York University, New York, NY


Instructor of Economics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Economics, 1986 - 1989

Taught and developed courses in urban economics, intermediate-level microeconomic theory, and principles of economics.


New York University, New York, NY


Assistant Research Scientist, Urban Research Center, 1983 - 1986

Collaborated in economic research projects dealing with taxation, urban transit, and housing.


American Telephone and Telegraph Company, New York, NY


Economic Consultant, 1982


Collaborated in the development of a computer-based simulation model intended to aid in the determination of long-distance telephone rates. Also performed research in support of rate cases.


Publications


Note
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Economics and the FTC’s Google Investigation.” With Michael Salinger. Review of Industrial Organization, vol. 46, no. 1 (February 2015), pp. 25-57.

Economic Considerations Raised by the Federal Trade Commission’s Investigation of Google’s Search Practices.” With Michael Salinger. Competition Policy International, vol. 10, no. 2 (Autumn/Winter 2014), pp. 102-117.

“Introduction: Competition Policy and Intellectual Property Rights: Legal and Economic Perspectives.” The Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 59, no. 2 (Summer 2014), pp. 173-182.

“Economics and Economic Experts in Antitrust Litigation.” With Thomas Overstreet. Chapter 36 in Julian O. von Kalinowski ed., Antitrust Counseling and Litigation Techniques (Matthew Bender Rev. Ed. 2013).

“Introduction: The Use and Abuse of Voluntary Standard-Setting Processes in a Post-Rambus World: Law, Economics, and Competition Policy.” With Stanley Besen. The Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 57, no. 1 (Spring 2012), pp. 1-16.

“Economic Remedies for Anticompetitive Hold-up: The Rambus Cases.” With Stanley Besen. The Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 3 (Fall 2011), pp. 583-608.

“Economics.” Chapter 1 in David H. Evans, ed., Electronic Commerce: Antitrust and Consumer Protection in the Information Age. (Chicago: American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law Monograph 26, 2011).

Lessons from FTC v. Rambus.” With Stanley Besen. Icarus (newsletter of the Media & Technology Committee of the Antitrust Section of the American Bar Association, Summer 2010), pp. 17-28.

“The Interaction between Settlements and Private Litigation – An Economic Perspective.” With Lorenzo Coppi. In C.‑D. Ehlermann and M. Marquis, eds., European Competition Law Annual 2008: Antitrust Settlements under EC Competition Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2010).

Standards, Intellectual Property Disclosure, and Patent Royalties After Rambus.” With Stanley Besen. North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology, vol. 10, no. 2 (Spring 2009), pp. 233-282.

Similarities and Differences in the Use of Economics in Merger Cases by the European Commission and the US Agencies.” With Andrea Coscelli. Chapter 6 in International Comparative Legal Guide to: Merger Control 2008 (London: Global Legal Group Ltd., 2007).

“Tour d’horizon du projet de Lignes directrices de la Commission européenne sur les concentrations non-horizontales” (“The European Commission's Draft Non-Horizontal Merger Guidelines: A Quick Look”). Published in French. Revue Lamy de la Concurrence, No. 11 (April/June 2007).

The Flawed Fragmentation Critique of Structural Remedies in the Microsoft Case.” With R. Craig Romaine and Steven C. Salop. The Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 1 (Spring 2001), pp. 135-162.

Interview with FTC Commissioner Thomas B. Leary.” With Leslie Overton. Computer Industry (American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law Computer Industry Committee newsletter, Spring 2001).

“Interview with Nancy Goodman, Chief of the Computers and Finance Section, Antitrust Division, Department of Justice.” With Leslie Overton. Computer Industry (American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law Computer Industry Committee newsletter, Summer 2000).

“Antitrust and the Economics of the Public Interest.” The Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 42, no. 1 (Spring 1997), pp. 1-3.

“Concerns Raised by Recent Computer-Related Antitrust Cases.” The Antitrust Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 1 (Spring 1996), pp. 43-60.

“Efficiency Lost? The Microsoft Consent Decree.” Chapter 9 in M. Coate and A. Kleit, eds., The Economics of the Antitrust Process (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996).

“An Introduction to Network Externalities.” With Joseph Kattan. Published in Russian. USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology (October 1994), pp. 74-84.

“The Determinants and Behavior of Prices in the US Market for IBM-Standard Microcomputers.” Unpublished dissertation, New York University (1990).


Contributions to collective works


Participated in the development of “Comments of the American Bar Association’s Section of Antitrust Law on the Competition Bureau of Canada’s Draft Updated Intellectual Property Enforcement Guidelines,” June 2014.

Contributor to “Joint Comments of the American Bar Association’s Section of Antitrust Law and Section of International Law on the European Commission’s Draft Guidelines on the Assessment of Non-Horizontal Mergers Under the Council Regulation on the Control of Concentrations Between Undertakings,” May 2007.


Working papers


The Role for Economic Analysis in the FTC’s Google Investigation.” With Michael Salinger (June 2013).

The Flawed Fragmentation Critique of Structural Remedies in the Microsoft Case.” With R. Craig Romaine and Steven C. Salop (January 2000).


Presentations before public and professional audiences


In addition to the following, Dr. Levinson has made numerous presentations on market definition, theories of collusion, network effects, predatory conduct, and other antitrust issues at leading law firms in Boston, Brussels, New York and Washington, DC.

"The Application of Antitrust to Patent Assertion Entities." With Alan Devlin. Presentation before the Executive Committee of the New York State Bar Association (with Alan Devlin), New York, NY, April 2018.

Panelist in "“Is Big Data the New IP for Antitrust?”, program of the ABA Section of Antitrust Law Unilateral Conduct and Intellectual Property Committees, December 2017.

Moderator of “IP and Antitrust — The Current State of Economic Analysis” panel of the Global Competition Review GCR Live 2nd Annual IP & Antitrust USA conference, Washington, DC, April 2015.

Economics presentation in the ”How to Deal With Intellectual Property in Merger Control Remedies” panel session of the Concurrences Journal & Paul Hastings Second Annual Global Mergers Conference, Paris, France, December 2014.

“Competitive Analysis of Market Share Discounts and Related Practices.” With Yianis Sarafidis. Presentation before the Executive Committee of the New York State Bar Association, New York, NY, October 2013.

“Patent Pools: Some Fundamental Economic Considerations.” Presentation as part of the American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law Intellectual Property Committee program, “Patent Pools,” Washington, DC, June 2013.

“Merger Enforcement in Hard Times: Should Enforcement Priorities Change During Recessions?” Presentation as part of the American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law Civil Practice & Procedure and Financial Service Committees program, “Upturn, Downturn: Should Antitrust Care?,” Washington, DC, December 2012.

“Standards, Intellectual Property Disclosure, and Patent Royalties: the Rambus Cases.” Presentation before the Executive Committee of the New York State Bar Association, New York, NY, May 2011.

“Antitrust Immunity Issues Suggested by Credit Suisse: A Competition Economist’s Perspective.” Presentation as part of the “Finance, the New ‘New Deal,’ and Credit Suisse” session of the American Bar Association 59th Antitrust Law Spring Meeting, Washington, DC, April 2011.

Economics presentation in the “Merger Hypothetical” panel session of the Global Competition Review Antitrust Law Leaders’ Forum, Miami Beach, FL, February 2011.

“Economic Issues and Remedies in US v. Microsoft: A Quick Look.” Presentation before the Colloquium on the Economy and Judicial Power: How Judges’ Decisions Influence the Economy, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 2004. (Conference sponsored by the International Judicial Academy, the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange Foundation, the Federal Council of Courts and Superior Tribunals of Justice of the Argentine Provinces, and the Association of Magistrates and Officials of the National Judiciary of Argentina).

“Costs and Benefits of Multiple-Agency Merger Enforcement.” Presentation before the George Mason Law Review Antitrust Symposium, Washington, DC, May 2002.

“The Fragmentation Hypothesis and Remedies in US v. Microsoft.” Presentation at Economists’ Perspectives on Antitrust Today, Boston, MA, April 2000.

“Should Non-Price Vertical Restraints be Per Se Legal?” Presentation before the American Bar Association Antitrust Section Summer Meeting, Atlanta, GA, August 1999.

“Economic Analysis of Horizontal Restraints in Trade Association Cases.” Presentation before the Bar Association of the District of Columbia’s 35th Annual Conference on Associations and Antitrust, Washington, DC, February 1999.

“Antitrust Issues in Telecommunications and Related Industries.” Presentation at Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett Antitrust Dinner/Seminar, Washington, DC, November 1998.

“Market Definition and Competitive Effects in Retailing Mergers.” Presentation before the 73rd Annual Conference of the Western Economic Association, Lake Tahoe, NV, June 1998.

“Some Concerns Raised by Recent Computer-Related Antitrust Cases.” Presentation before the 70th Annual Conference of the Western Economic Association, San Diego, CA, July 1995.

“The Microsoft Consent Decree.” Presentation before the 70th Annual Conference of the Western Economic Association, San Diego, CA, July 1995.

“Economic Analysis of Compatibility Standards: How Useful Is It?” Presentation before the 67th Annual Conference of the Western Economic Association, San Francisco, CA, July 1992.


Editorial experience


Member of Advisory Board, The Antitrust Bulletin, May 2013 - present.

Editor of “Competition Policy and Intellectual Property Rights: Legal and Economic Perspectives,” a symposium issue of The Antitrust Bulletin (Summer 2014).

Co-editor of “The Use and Abuse of Voluntary Standard-Setting Processes in a Post-Rambus World: Law, Economics, And Competition Policy,” a symposium issue of the The Antitrust Bulletin (Spring 2012).

Economics Editor, Icarus (Newsletter of the Communications and Digital Technology Industries Committee of the American Bar Association Section of Antitrust Law), 2010 - 2013.

Chaired the Antitrust Economics session of the 72nd Annual Conference of the Western Economic Association, San Francisco, July 1996. Edited session papers prior to publication in the spring 1997 issue of The Antitrust Bulletin.


Experience as referee for scholarly journals


Referee for Journal of Industrial Economics

Referee for Journal of Economics & Management Strategy


Honors and awards


Listed in Who’s Who Legal: Competition, 2017, 2018 and 2019

Listed in Who’s Who Legal: Consulting Experts, 2017, 2018 and 2019

Listed in the International Who’s Who of Competition Lawyers & Economists, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014

FTC Outstanding Team Effort Award, 1997 (for work in F.T.C. v. Staples, Inc. and Office Depot, Inc.)

Shell Dissertation Fellowship, 1986 - 1987

Sloan Foundation Fellowship, 1981 - 1982

NYU University Fellowship, 1980 - 1981

Phi Beta Kappa, 1980

NYU E. E. Bailey Prize in Economics (best bachelor's honors thesis), 1980

NYU Sherborne V. Demerel Prize for Scholarship and Service, 1980

NYU Senior Economics Citation, 1980

NYU Murray Altman Prize in Economics, 1979

NYU Arts and Science Scholarship, 1977–1980

New York State Regents College Scholarship, 1976 - 1980


Professional societies


American Economic Association

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Bar Association (associate member)



Revised: November 6, 2019